There are following standard objects are present in Salesforce to store information of customers:
A campaign is an object which is used to store the data of customers that came from the marketing of products, marketing channels can be of different types.
Lead is the object that is used to store the information of potential customers. For example
If you are selling a laptop to a company or person then the company or person will be your potential customer and information will be stored in the Lead object.
Don't forget to check out: How to Use Salesforce for Customer Retention – 5 Effective Tips
In this object, the information of the company will be stored to which your product is sold.
In this object, the information of the person will be stored with whom the product deal is closed or going to close with his company information/(Account).
It Stores the information about deals that are happening with our customers, we work on opportunities so that we can generate revenue for our company.
Every product or service which we are providing to our customers is stored in Product(Inventory).
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In this object's Information of deals and product service contract, each information is stored.