Files replaced Attachments in Salesforce. Now any type of document upload becomes part of Files/Content in Salesforce. With all the other advantages over Attachments, the best one is Files can be shared across objects, means having a attachment with multiple parents.
In lightning experience, any attachment upload is uploaded as files after Winter 16. But in salesforce classic you need to go to files settings and check “Files uploaded to the Attachments related list on records are uploaded as Salesforce Files, not as attachments” to make this happen. From then onwards Attachments will be uploaded as Files from classic too.
We all being uploading attachment in different ways one and of the ways is via Apex. Now how to upload Files as Attachment using Apex ? It is very simple you just need to understand the object relations and thats it.
ContentDocument This object record you don’t create. It gets created when you create Content Version who is child of ContentDocument. But Id of this record will be required to do other stuff.